For fixed assets, the period from the acquisition of a fixed asset to the date of the last periodic reduction made to reflect depreciation of the book value of that asset. Assets may be depreciated until the book value is zero, but sometimes are only depreciated until the book value is reduced to an assumed salvage value. Annual percentage rate APR The total financing costs associated with a loan on an annualized basis, divided by the amount borrowed. Annual percentage yield APY A precisely calculated measure of yield paid on a bank deposit account.
Annuities Contracts that guarantee income, often for an individual's lifetime, in exchange for a lump sum or periodic payment. Annuity contracts have a number of standard variants, including deferred, fixed, immediate, or variable. Anticipated income doctrine of liquidity An explanation of bank liquidity developed by Herbert Prochnow, in which the net cash flow of bank borrowers, rather than subsequent new borrowings, is seen as the true source of loan repayments. Accordingly, to the extent that loans are written with payment terms and maturities that reflect the borrower's cash flow stream, the cash flow to the bank from loan principal payments is the source of bank liquidity.
See commercial loan theory of liquidity and shiftability theory of liquidity. Appraisal A statement or estimate of the market value of tangible personal property or real estate. Under the federal appraisal regulations for real estate pledged to secure loans, the term "appraisal" refers to a statement of market value that meets the five specific standards. See complete appraisal, evaluation, and limited appraisal.
Appraisal surplus The difference between the historical cost and the appraised value of fixed assets. Arbitrage 1 In theory, arbitrage is the simultaneous purchase and sale of two identical commodities or instruments to take advantage of price variations in different markets. For example, the purchase of gold in London and the simultaneous sale of gold in New York. For example, the purchase of two-year Treasuries and the sale of futures contracts for an equivalent amount.
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There is no "arbitrage" in the classic sense of the word. Rather, equity holders hope to capture the difference between the after-default yield on the assets and the financing cost due debt tranches. See collateralized debt obligation CDO.
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Arbitrage free A type of financial model that generates market scenarios excluding scenarios that provide arbitrage opportunities. Arrears Unpaid dividends or bond interest that a corporation owes its stockholders or bond holders after the payable or due date on which the dividends or interest should have been paid. Article 8 Portion of the UCC covering collateral interests in both physical certificated and book-entry uncertificated securities. See Uniform Commercial Code.
Article 9 Portion of the UCC covering security interest in most personal property other than securities. Article of agreement Contractual arrangement used in some states under which a buyer purchases real estate from a seller over a period of time, usually by making periodic installment payments. Title is not conveyed to the buyer until the final payment is made.
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Also called land contract. Asian option An option whose payoff is based upon the average value of an underlying over a specified period of time. See underlying. Also see American option, European option and Bermuda option. As-extracted collateral Oil, gas, or other minerals that are subject to a security interest that is created by a debtor having an interest in the minerals either before or after extraction. A security interest can also include accounts arising out of the sale at the wellhead or minehead of oil, gas, or other minerals in which the debtor had an interest before extraction.
A category of personal property collateral defined by the revisions to Article 9 of the UCC.
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Ascending rate bonds Securities with a coupon rate that increases in previously defined increments at scheduled intervals. Asked or asking price The trading price proposed by the prospective seller of securities. Also called the offer or offered price. Asset-backed security ABS A debt security collateralized by assets. Created from the securitization of any loans. ABSs may be structured in a variety of ways including simple "pass through" structures and complex, "multi-tranche" structures. The value that ABSs provide to investors is comprised of the cash flows due to the ABS holders from the underlying loans.
ABS issues are typically structured so that the bankruptcy or insolvency of an underlying borrower does not impact the cash flow received by the security owner. See special purpose vehicle and waterfall. Asset sensitive Describes an entity's position when an increase in interest rates will help the entity and a decrease in interest rates will hurt the entity. An entity is asset sensitive when the impact of the change in its assets is larger than the impact of the change in its liabilities after a change in prevailing interest rates.
This occurs when either the timing or the amount of the rate changes for liabilities causes interest expense to change by more than the change in interest income. The impact of a change in prevailing interest rates may be measured in terms of the change in the value of assets and liabilities.
In that case, an asset-sensitive entity's economic value of equity increases when prevailing rates rise or declines when prevailing rates fall. Alternatively, the impact of a change in prevailing rates may be measured in terms of the change in the interest income and expense for assets and liabilities. In that case, an asset-sensitive entity's earnings or net income increases when prevailing rates rise and declines when prevailing rates fall. In a financial institution, the ALCO is usually responsible for asset and liability distribution, asset and liability pricing, balance sheet size, funding, spread management, and interest rate sensitivity management.
Usually used somewhat redundantly, as in ALCO committee. The process of balancing the management of separate types of financial risk to achieve desired objectives while operating within predetermined, prudent risk limits. Accomplishing that task requires coordinated management of assets, liabilities, capital, and off-balance sheet positions. Therefore, in the broadest sense of the term, ALM is simply the harmonious management of cash, loans, investments, fixed assets, deposits, short-term borrowings, long-term borrowings, capital, and off-balance sheet commitments.
However, in practice, the term is often used to refer to segments of that broader definition such as only interest rate risk management or only interest rate and liquidity risk management.
See earnings at risk, market value at risk and market value of portfolio equity. Assets repriced before liabilities A measure of the gap between the quantity of assets repricing and the quantity of liabilities repricing within a given period of time. A simple measure of a financial institution's exposure to beneficial or adverse consequences from changes in prevailing interest rates.
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Assignment Transfer of any contractual agreement between two parties. One of the parties, the assignor, transfers its rights or obligations to another party, the assignee. If interests in assets of the assignor are assigned, the assignment transfers all or some of the rights of ownership to the assignee. If interests in obligations of the assignor are assigned, the assignor is totally or partially absolved from further performance. Lenders sometimes see leased property assigned from the original lessor to another party who then pledges them to the bank as collateral for a loan.
For personal property collateral, a secured party may enter an assignment of its security interest into the public record by using a standard form called UCC Assignment of buyer's interest in land contract A document used when a borrower is purchasing real estate over time under an article of agreement or land contract. The document assigns the lender all of the borrower's personal property, real property, and contractual rights under the land contract.
Assignment of lease and rentals A document used in real estate loans when the mortgaged property is leased to third-party tenants. If the borrower defaults, the assignment of lease and rentals gives the lender the right to receive rents from the tenants and to transfer the leases to a subsequent purchaser of the property. Assignment of seller's interest in land contract A document used in real estate loans when the mortgaged property is subject to a land contract or article of agreement under which it is being sold over time to a third party.
If the borrower defaults, the assignment of the land contract gives the lender the right to receive payments from the buyer and to transfer the land contract to another buyer. Association of Financial Professionals A national organization for finance professionals that provides educational, and certifications programs, research programs, standards development, and government relations activities. Assumable As applied to mortgage loans, assumable means that a borrower who sells his or her home may transfer the outstanding mortgage loan secured by that dwelling to the new buyers.
The new buyers are said to assume the loan. Assumed name Name used by a proprietorship, partnership, or corporation to conduct business that is different from the legal name of the proprietorship, partnership or corporation. Asymmetric behavior Unbalanced behavior exhibited by financial instruments, the rates or values of which do not change in proportion to changes in market rates. For example, increases in the prime rate quickly reflect most or all of increases in prevailing interest rates, while decreases in the prime rate are slow to reflect decreases in prevailing interest rates.
At the money The situation in which the current market price, the spot price, of an underlying instrument is equal to the strike or exercise price of an option to buy or sell that instrument. Creditors must comply with this procedure in order to obtain a security interest in property owned by a debtor. Alternatively or in addition, the process may be used to give the creditor a security interest in property owned by a guarantor or by another third party. Often, attachment alone is not sufficient to establish the priority of the creditor's interest relative to the interests of other creditors.
See financing statements and perfection. Attrition analysis Evaluation of the reduction in the amount of an asset or liability held. For example, an analysis of the reduction in savings account balances caused by withdrawals over time. Audited statements The most reliable type of financial statements.
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